Answered By: Claire Mazer
Last Updated: 17 Mar, 2015     Views: 1244

The “n” convention
N stands for note and replaces the use of op cit (Latin for as above). It is used in subsequent citations to refer to a previously cited footnote, but where other publications have been referred to in footnotes in between. To cite something from the same source immediately following the previous footnote use ibid.

For example:

1 Robert Stevens, Torts and Rights (OUP 2007).

26 Stevens (n 1) 110.

27 ibid 271–78.


Essentially, the information in n26 (or footnote #26) means the writer doesn’t have to repeat all the bibliographic information about Stevens’ book again, but rather refers the reader to n1 (footnote #1) for all the bibliographic information, but “pinpoints” page 110 indicating to the reader that information was taken from that page.  Footnotes 2-25 incl will refer to different cases, journals etc. n27 tells us that pages 271-278 are being referred to of Stevens book.

There is a section in the OSCOLA guide about this which you can read at s.1.2.