Answered By: Claire Mazer
Last Updated: 17 Mar, 2015     Views: 2459

The key points to note are that sources need to be in categories, with primary sources (cases, legislation) listed first, followed by secondary sources (books, journals, websites) all in alphabetical and then chronological order.

Note that authors names are inverted. Surname appears first followed by the initial of the first name.

Electronic versions of cases and journal articles:
Many cases and journal articles can be found in legal databases such as Westlaw, Lexis Library etc. However, it is not necessary to cite databases as the source. Almost all law reports and journals are available in printed form. The citation itself is sufficient since it includes the law report or journal in which the case was reported or journal article was published. There are a few journals where only an electronic version is available, usually the clue is in the title: The Internet Journal of Criminology. For these titles it is necessary to add the URL in triangular brackets and the date it was accessed.

Here is a sample bibliography:



Pepper v Hart [1993] AC 593 (HL)

R v Brockway (Andrew Robert) (2008) 2 Cr App R (S) 4

R v Edwards (John) (1991) 93 Cr App R 48



Crime and Disorder Act 1998

Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984



Clarkson CMV, Criminal Law: Text and Materials (7th edn, Sweet & Maxwell 2010)

Norrie N, Crime, Reason and History (2nd edn, Cambridge University Press 2001)



Ashworth A, ‘Social Control and “Anti-Social Behaviour”: the Subversion of Human Rights’ (2004) 120 LQR 263

Behan C and O'Donnell I, 'Prisoners, Politics and the Polls: Enfranchisement and the Burden of Responsibility' (2008) 48(3) Brit J Criminol, 31



Gowin J, ‘Can We Predict Crime Using Brain Scans?’ (You, Illuminated. Psychology Today)  <> accessed 20 October 2013

Metropolitan Police Service, ‘Hate crime’ (Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime 2015) <> accessed 26 February 2015

Comments (2)

  1. How would I reference this website legislation in my bibliography? : (Adoption and Children Act, 2002) Thank you
    by KLRoberts on 13 Sep, 2016.
  2. Hi there

    I see you emailing from a Bangor university address. I would first advise you to check which referencing system is used for your subject area, i.e. Harvard, OSCOLA.

    You do not need to refer to the website merely the piece of legislation if you are using OSCOLA. Harvard, however does require the website address. There are differences in how universities apply referencing systems so please check with Bangor first before applying any rules.
    by Claire Mazer on 13 Sep, 2016.